Table of Contents

>Flight Instructions
>Private Pilot
>Instrument Rating
>Commercial Pilot
>Certified Flight Instructor
>Complex and High Performance Endorsements
>Flight Review Information (BFR)
>Instrument Proficiency Check Information
Ground School
Flight Instruction Rates
Payment Methods

Flight Instruction

Gulf Aviation is authorized to teach as a Part 61 flight school, meaning that we train students under the government regulation 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61.
So, what does this mean to you as a beginning flyer?
Let's start with describing Part 61. Under this regulation the government has published a list of knowledge areas, maneuvers, and very minimum hour requirements (flight time experience) that you must have to gain any of your flight certificates or ratings. How you go about obtaining the necessary experience is up to you and your instructor to determine, though most instructors have a general guideline of learning that they follow. This is what makes learning under Part 61 fun and exciting, as you and your instructor are not limited to a particular route of how to fill the squares, and you can concoct some great schemes of places to go!

As a generalization, most people obtaining their license under Part 61 are doing it for fun and at their convenience, versus someone who wants a direct route to the airlines (though this also happens quite a bit). In this respect, students already have a career as well as other life pressures, and learning under this regulation doesn't create any additional pressure. Because of these factors, few people will actually gain their certificates or ratings in the very minimum amount of time. Each person has different goals, and each lives a different life as far as time constraints, money constraints, stress, and emotional pressures. When you make the decision to learn to fly, you will want to sit down with your instructor and discuss your goals and objectives in order for the two of you to make a rational plan of how to proceed.

Part 141 schools have specific syllabi approved by the FAA, which have different (generally lower) minimum hour requirements. You will be able to get your licenses with fewer hours, however you will do your training at an accelerated pace. These schools are not for everyone, as many people do not have the time for this type of structure or can hold up to the accelerated pace. It is similar to learning to fly in the military, as you will follow the syllabus letter for letter and does exactly as each lesson says. If you are not improving satisfactorily (according to parameters set by the syllabus) then you will need to repeat those portions of the lessons you did not perform up to par on. Although this is not a bad thing, it can create quite an extra cost for the amount of extra time needed to complete the lessons.

Is There Any Age, Language, Medical, or Other Requirements I Must Meet to Learn to Fly?
There are three basic requirements for learning to fly powered airplanes in the United States:
Age
Regulations require that a person be 16 years old to solo (fly alone in the airplane) and 17 to earn a license, however there is no age restriction as to when you may begin flight training. 

On the other side of the coin, there are no age restrictions that requires you to stop flying either. As long as you can obtain a medical certificate then you may fly. If you cannot obtain a medical certificate, you will not be preempted from flying totally, as you may still fly with an instructor.

We encourage any age to broaden their horizons with such a great activity!

Language
There is a requirement by the FAA for you to be able to read, write, speak, and understand English. If this may be an issue for you, you will need to take steps to further your communication abilities. Options that may help include: hiring a language tutor, taking English language lessons through a school (i.e. the Berlitz language school or local university), purchasing books concerning radio calls, or even purchasing a transceiver with air frequency capabilities (this will allow you to listen to pilot/controller communications while remaining on the ground). One way or another, you must be able to understand radio calls to you and other aircraft, as well as to be able to respond to them in a timely manner. 

Medical Requirements
The FAA requires that every pilot have a medical certificate given by an FAA Aviation Medical Examiner to act as Pilot in Command of an airplane. As a beginning pilot, your medical certificate will also double as your Student Pilot Certificate, which you will need to solo (fly alone). 

There are three types of medical certificates you may obtain: a First Class, Second Class, or Third Class. For your first medical you will want to determine the type of flying you plan to do. If you plan to obtain all of your flight certificates and try a commercial career in aviation, then you will want to obtain a First Class medical. Most commercial operators require a First Class medical, so it's a good idea to pass a first class medical exam early on in your training. By obtaining your medical right from the start, you know you can pass the medical requirements to fly commercially. If you plan to use your licenses mainly for recreational purposes, however, then a Third Class Medical will suit you just fine.

The differences from each class of medical requires a little more thorough exam than the previous one, and doctors will normally charge a different amount for each.

If you're just starting out as a student pilot or a private pilot, any grade of medical certificate that you obtain will be valid for 36 calendar months (or 24 calendar months if you're over 40 at the time of examination). As you progress through your training and reach the commercial pilot level, you will need a second class medical examination every 12 calendar months in order to fly for hire. And for those who desire to become airline captains, a first class medical examination is needed every 6 calendar months during your time as a captain.

What Flight Certificates Can I Earn, and What Can I do With Them?
The general progression of earning flight certificates and ratings goes as follows, although there are many routes you may choose. 

A person will first earn his/her Private Pilot Certificate, which will give him/her the privileges of: flying alone or with family and friends in good weather. You may learn in a single-engine airplane or a multi-engine airplane, however whichever you learn in will limit you to use of that category of airplane once you complete your certificate (at least until you complete an exam with an FAA examiner in the other type of airplane). Most people choose single-engine, as it is a good deal less expensive. A Private Pilot is not allowed to fly for compensation or hire, to fly in and out of clouds or fog, or even fly in areas of very low visibility. This means that he/she is limited to some of the things they can do, mainly due to safety-related reasons. 

The next step is normally to obtain an Instrument Rating. Basically this is an amendment to your Private Pilot License that says you may now fly in and out of clouds and low visibility, because you have advanced training in using and relying on only your instruments to fly. It is not another license though, and therefore you are still limited to the restrictions of your Private Pilot's License of not being able to fly for hire. Many people finish this rating and stop here, as this gives them the capability to fly for fun in bad weather or good weather.

The next certificate you will earn will be your Commercial License. What this allows you to do is to fly for hire, and it requires a good deal more flight time. What the FAA is looking for is more experience. They expect you to demonstrate mastery of the aircraft, and therefore require you to perform to stricter parameters than what you were required to perform to as a Private Pilot. Now you will be able to fly for money! For example, you may choose to tow banners, or we can arrange a charter operation, etc.

Following this certificate you have several options, depending on what your goals are. If you are looking for airline or arrange a charter employment and have done all of your training in a single-engine airplane thus far, you will want to get what's called your multi-engine add-on. What's required is for you to do enough training to be able to fly to Commercial and Instrument standards in a multi-engine aircraft.

If you like to teach people, you may want to become an instructor (Certified Flight Instructor-CFI). This is also a great way to build experience and flight hours to reach another goal (i.e. the airlines or corporate flying), and it allows you to teach people to become Private or Commercial Pilots. If you want to teach Instrument students you will want to get an Instrument Rating attached to your Flight Instructor Certificate (Certified Flight Instructor Instrument-CFII). The last of the instructor certificates is your Multi-engine Instructor Certificate (MEI) which allows you to instruct in multi-engine aircraft.

How Many Hours are Airlines or Corporate Companies Typically Looking for in Job Applicants?
Currently airlines are in a state of hiring frenzy, and have lowered the minimums they require for you to be a prospective applicant. Generally you will begin your job search with the regional airlines, which have lower minimums than major airlines. In years past these companies have required applicants to have 1,500 hours total time and 200 hours multi-engine time. Many companies even required the applicant to pay for their airline training (generally $8,000 to $15,000). Now these same companies are expecting at the very least 1,000 hours total time and 100 hours multi-engine time, and most do not require you to pay for your training any longer. Many people are being hired with considerably less totals; however that is on a case by case basis.

Corporate companies are generally looking for pilots with experiences ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 hours total time with anywhere from 100 to 300 hours multi-engine time.

Private Pilot

What Should I Expect in my Pilot Training?
Obtaining your pilot’s license is similar to getting your driver’s license in that you must take both a knowledge (written) and a practical test in order to get either license. In your driver’s test and in your private pilot’s test there are certain maneuvers that you are expected to perform, and you must perform those within specified parameters. The examiner is looking to ensure that you will make a safe and competent pilot (or driver), that you have good judgment, and can be flexible with your environment.

To that end, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), has designed a minimum amount of hours they require for you to obtain your license. However, very few people are able to accomplish their license in this minimum amount of time, predominantly because of other time obligations. The average person can expect to obtain their license with 55-65 flight hours, although this number can vary widely up or down. It is up to the instructor to ensure that each pilot applicant is prepared before sending them up for an exam (check ride).

Flying
The general course of action each instructor will take is to start you flying immediately. You will learn how the airplane handles (turning, climbing, descending), what are its characteristics (in different airspeeds, altitudes, and temperatures), what to do in case of emergencies, what to say on the radios, and how to take-off and land the airplane. This will be done through the completion of various maneuvers, demonstrated by your instructor and practiced by you. Once you are capable of completing certain maneuvers, communicating on the radio, and have shown that you can consistently land the airplane on your own, your instructor will solo you. Yes, this means that you will be flying the airplane by yourself! This is a milestone for most people, and very rewarding for everyone involved! You will probably then complete several local solo flights before starting a new phase of your training. 

Up until now, you will have stayed in the vicinity of your local airport. In this new phase, you will be completing trips to new airports with your instructor, which are called cross-country trips. These are usually fun trips, and can be taken to most anywhere (the only requirement is that the airport is at least 50 nautical miles away). Many people choose their destinations based on where the best airport restaurants are located, where there are museums, friends, etc. Once you have mastered this, you will once again be on your own for a couple of solo cross-country trips. At some point during this time you will be introduced to night flying with your instructor, and will complete not only a local night flight but also a night cross-country. 

At this point, you are now beginning the last phase of your training, which is review and preparation for your check ride.

Ground training is mostly completed by you, either through watching and completing the Cessna CD-ROM set or reading the Jeppesen books. There will be time with your instructor, as there are some topics your instructor will want to discuss with you ,as well as to brief you before and after each flight.

Your Written Exam and Check Ride
The written exam should be completed several weeks before finishing your flying, and is fairly straightforward. It is a multiple choice computerized exam, consisting of 60 questions for which you are allotted two and a half hours to complete. What makes this test straightforward is that the questions are selected from an FAA bank of just over 700 questions, which are all published. As long as you review the questions and take some practice tests, you will be prepared for your written exam.

Your practical test will consist of two sections, both an oral part (where you will sit down and answer questions for the examiner), as well as a practical portion. Here, you will go up in the airplane with the examiner and perform the specified maneuvers. Once that is completed to the set specifications, the examiner will issue you your Private Pilot’s License!

Beyond the Check Ride
Now that you are a Private Pilot, you may now take family and friends flying, or even look into purchasing your own plane. The sky is the limit!

If you want to continue your learning, you may take the next step: Instrument Flying. This rating will give you the ability to fly in and out of the clouds, and can be very beneficial.

What Kind of Equipment Will I need to Purchase?
Headsets
These will range in price depending on the brand you buy as well as the features each have. Before you buy a set, you will want to consider the amount of flying you plan to be doing over the next several years. You will want to pick out a set based on comfort (try it on!!) and quality of hearing, as an uncomfortable and scratchy sounding set can make what would have been a terrific flight turn into a disaster. 
Features 
Some headsets have a feature known as Active Noise Reduction (ANR), which considerably reduces the background noise in the airplane. Although these headsets are a little more expensive than other headsets, in the long run it is a great investment for your ears. 

Brands
One brand is not necessarily better than another, however you will want to talk to other pilots and discover what their preferences are. Ultimately the decision is yours to make! Some common brands are: David Clark, Avcomm, Denali, Peltor, LightSpeed, Telex, and Bose. 
$100 - $1000 

Cessna Pilot Center (CPC) kit

Included in this kit is some vital equipment to the beginning flyer. Although the actual flying is fairly straightforward, the knowledge side of things is what most people struggle with, due to the sheer amount you are expected to learn. Cessna has come out with a CD-ROM kit which turns the reading into video clips, and takes you through the learning process in an interesting and interactive manner. You are able to complete the lessons between flights at your leisure, and repeat video clips as many times as you want. Once you finish a lesson, you can bring a disk in for your flight instructor to download, which provides an excellent opportunity for the two of you to discuss questions you may have had. Also included in the kit is a Private Pilot Handbook (to go along with the 27 CD-ROM set) as well as a syllabus to keep track of what you will be doing on your flights. Other items which you will need that are included: 
Pilot’s Operating Handbook (for the type of airplane you choose to do your training on) and Safety Supplement 
FAR/AIM (Federal Aviation Regulations/Aeronautical Information Manual) CD-ROM 
Private Pilot Practical Test Standards (PTS) book (this tells you what maneuvers you will need to perform on your check ride and what parameters you need to perform within) 
E6B Flight Computer and Navigation Plotter 
Pilot Logbook 
Student Pilot Kit bag 
Graduation Certificate 

Other Options
For the beginning flyer without a computer, Jeppesen and other product lines offer excellent training aids which include all you will need in book form..

    1. Private Pilot Manual 
    2. Private Pilot Syllabus 
    3. Private Pilot Maneuvers Manual
    4. Private Pilot Airmen Knowledge Study Guide
    5. FAR/AIM (Federal Aviation Regulations/Aeronautical Information Manual)
    6. Book and CD-ROM 
    7. Private Pilot Practical Test Standards (PTS) and Oral Exam Study Guide E6B
    8. Flight Computer and Navigation Plotter 
    9. Pilot Logbook 
    10. Student Pilot Kit bag 
    11. Fuel Strainer 
    12. Presolo Written Exam $260 
    13. Fuel Strainer (included in the Jeppesen kit) 
    14. There are several kinds available, however the most handy seems to be the one with the screw driver on the end of it $5 - $7 
    15. Kneeboard $30 - $40 
    16. Flashlight with red, green, or blue filter on it $22-$28 
    17. 1 Sectionals (maps) - Brownville $8.00 
    18. 1 Terminal Area Chart (map) – San Antonio Area $4 
    19. Airport Facility Directory – SE Region $5 
    20. Private Oral Exam Guide (included in the Jeppesen kit) Published by ASA, written by Michael D. Hayes $10 
    21. Private Pilot FAA Written Exam, 
    22. Published by Gleim $16 
    23. Pilot’s Operating Handbook, for your type of airplane (included in the Cessna Pilot Kit) Actual prices may vary, these are estimates only. Taxes are not included. $25-$40 

How Much Will Earning My Private Pilot's License Cost?
There are several costs associated with obtaining your pilot’s license. The first is the actual instruction/airplane time, the next is the amount you spend on equipment, and the last is the cost of your medical certificate. Since all of these factors vary depending upon the person, each are discussed in detail below. The average you can expect to pay (including equipment you need) will be approximately $4,500 to $6,500, but remember that this is only an average and can vary up or down. 

Flight Time
There is no set cost that you can expect to pay for flight training as there are quite a few variables involved. Cost will vary on several factors: 1) the type of airplane you choose to do your training in, 2) the frequency with which you are able to fly, and 3) the amount of time you spend with the instructor for flight and ground instruction.
 
Flight training is offered in a variety of aircraft, and each type has a different cost associated with it. The reasons for this are different sizes of aircraft and different equipment levels. Regulations require a bare minimum of 40 flight hours to obtain your license, however the average is generally 55 to 60 hours. Many people even spend up to 120 hours to complete their license, due to other obligations.

Concerning frequency, a person will retain more information if lessons are completed regularly rather than once a month. Therefore, it goes to follow that someone who flies regularly will be less likely to repeat lessons (due to a higher retention rate), and in the long run, will spend less money. 
The amount of flight instruction a person needs will depend upon each particular person (including factors such as: the amount one has studied as well as the frequency with which one flies). The amount of ground instruction a person will need also varies, based on the type of kit selected (CPC or Jeppesen) and the amount of studying one does on their own. You must also remember that every flight will include varying portions of ground instruction time as you will do a briefing before and after each flight with your instructor. 

Below is a rough estimate of costs you will incur in several types of airplanes, using the average number of hours a pilot normally acquires (55 hours total – 45 dual and 10 solo), and a minimum of ground time (25 hours). There is also a fee for your written exam and your check ride at the end of your course, which will average about $320. Remember that these numbers will vary lower or higher depending on the FAA examiner conducting the test/exam:
 

Cessna 152 $4,990 (minimum $3,835) 
Cessna 172 VFR $5,640 (minimum $4,110) 

* ALL PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE

Beginning Equipment Costs:
Beginning equipment costs will vary depending on your choices of equipment, but an estimate could range from approximately $370 to $1,390. On a following page is a list of equipment a beginner will need to purchase, and some helpful hints concerning each. Some of the items may not need to be purchased immediately (i.e. the maps and airport facility directory) but will need to be purchased soon after starting to fly. 

Medical Costs
You will need a medical certificate, which will cost anywhere from approximately $70 to $130.

How long will it take?
You are able to complete a pilot’s certificate at your convenience. Therefore, you may be done in as short a period as one month or as long a period of time as you desire. It is up to you and your schedule as to what amount of time you are willing to devote to flying and studying. 
People who complete the certificate in one month generally fly twice a day and study in their spare time, however people who finish in three to four months may be flying three times per week. Someone who uses one year or more to complete their license may be flying once a week or less. 
What you will want to do is sit down with your instructor and discuss your goals, as well as the amount of time you intend to put into the certificate. From there, the two of you can set a reasonable course of action.

How Do I Make Payments to Gulf Aviation?
For your convenience, there are two ways to make your payments. Either you may pay as you learn or pay lump sums ahead of time to create an account.

Instrument Rating

What Can I Expect in my Instrument Training?
This rating allows you greater flexibility as a pilot, and increases you skill at controlling an aircraft. The addition of this rating also provides a higher element of safety. Over the past years, the number one cause for general aviation accidents has been a result of continued flight into deteriorating weather conditions. A pilot with who is certified with this rating is more prepared when weather conditions deteriorate. They have a better understanding of how to avoid unsafe weather and are able to safely and legally fly through clouds or dense fog when it cannot be avoided. 

Now that you have accomplished your Private Pilot Certificate, you are familiar with the FAA’s system of obtaining certificates. Earning your instrument rating is similar to your previous license in that you must take both a knowledge (written) and a practical test. Once again you will have certain maneuvers that you are expected to perform, and you will be given specific parameters to perform within. The examiner is looking to ensure that you will make a safe and competent pilot, that you have good judgement, and can be flexible with your environment.

To that end, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has designed a minimum amount of hours (which equates to flight experience) that they require for you to obtain your rating. However, very few people are able to accomplish their rating in this minimum amount of time, predominantly because of other time obligations. The average person can expect to obtain their rating with 60-70 flight hours, although this number will vary widely up or down, depending upon your prior experiences. It is up to the instructor to ensure that each pilot applicant is prepared before sending them up for an exam (check ride).

Flying
To begin your instrument training, your instructor will teach you the basics of relying on your instruments. This involves flying “under the hood,” in other words with a view limiting device on that do not allow you to see outside. Your instructor will be your eyes outside while you practice looking inside. You will learn how to efficiently scan all of your instruments and practice maneuvers such as constant rate climbs and descents, turns to headings, and timed turns. 

Once you are adjusted to flying under the hood, you will begin a whole new facet of aviation. You will be introduced to flying several types of approaches and holding by using your instruments only. This is a new experience for all, and although very exciting it does require a good amount of concentration to begin with. As you improve, you will find it much easier.

As you did in your Private Pilot’s license, you will learn to fly a cross-country (more than 50 nautical miles), only this time with reliance only on your instruments. Unlike your Private Pilot’s License you are not required to do any solo flights under the hood. 
At this point, you are now beginning the last phase of your training, which is review and preparation for your check ride.

Ground training is mostly completed by you, either through watching and completing the Cessna CD-ROM set or reading the Jeppesen books. There will be time with your instructor, as there are some topics your instructor will want to discuss with you ,as well as to brief you before and after each flight.

Your Written Exam and Check Ride
The written exam should be completed several weeks before finishing your flying, and is fairly straightforward. It is a multiple choice computerized exam, consisting of 60 questions for which you are allotted two and a half hours to complete. What makes this test straightforward is that the questions are selected from an FAA bank of 900 questions, which are all published. As long as you review the questions and take some practice tests, you will be prepared for your written exam.

Your practical test will consist of two sections, both an oral part (where you will sit down and answer questions for the examiner), as well as a practical portion. Here, you will go up in the airplane with the examiner and perform the specified maneuvers. Once that is completed to the set specifications, the examiner will issue you your Instrument Rating!

Beyond the Check Ride
Now that you are Instrument Rated, you have the option of flying in new types of weather, which gives you the opportunity for longer trips. The sky is the limit!

If you want to continue your learning, be able to fly for hire or even go on to the airlines, you may decide to obtain your Commercial License.

What Kind of Equipment Will I Need to Purchase?
Since you already bought the basic equipment needed to begin flying once you began your Private Pilot certificate, what you will need now is mostly study material.

There are several options out there concerning instructional material for your Instrument Rating. What we recommend is listed below:

Cessna Pilot Center (CPC) kit
Included in this kit is some vital information for the beginning instrument student. As it was in your Private Pilot course, the actual flying is fairly straightforward with the knowledge side of things more of struggle, due to the sheer amount you are expected to learn. Cessna has come out with a CD-ROM kit which turns the reading into video clips, and takes you through it in an interesting and interactive manner. You are able to complete the lessons between flights at your leisure, and repeat video clips as many times as you want. Once you finish a lesson, you can bring a disk in for your flight instructor to download, which provides an excellent opportunity for the two of you to discuss questions you may have had. Included in the kit is: 

      1. A set of 23 CD-ROMs 
      2. Instrument Manual 
      3. Instrument Rating Syllabus 
      4. IFR Flight Organizer (includes plastic covers for approach plates and instrument cross-country flight plans, all together in a notebook) 
      5. Pilot’s Operating Handbook (for the airplane specifically that you will be flying) 
      6. Instrument Rating Practical Test Standards 

With this option you would also need to purchase the following: $259 
Foggles, a hood, or other view limiting device $13-$30 
Instrument Flying: FAA Written Exam, published by Gleim $19 
FAA Instrument Flying Handbook $12 

Another option would be to purchase the Jeppesen products, including: 
Jeppesen FliteSchool – this is a set of CD-ROMs which take you through the knowledge you need to become instrument rated, an allow you to take practice tests as well. 
Jeppesen Instrument/Commercial Manual $72 

In addition you would also need to purchase the following: 
Foggles, a hood, or other view limiting device $13-30 
Instrument Flying: FAA Written Exam, published by Gleim $19 
FAA Instrument Flying Handbook $12 

Check ride $200 

* ALL PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE

How Much Will Completing My Instrument Rating Cost?
As with your Private Pilot’s license, the amount of money you spend will again vary on how much you need as far as flight/ground instruction. The equipment you will need to purchase is minimal in comparison to what you needed for your Private License, however you will still need a current medical certificate.

Your cost will vary on several factors:
1) The type of airplane you choose to do your training in
2) The frequency with which you are able to fly
3) The amount of time you spend with the instructor for flight and ground instruction,
4) How you obtain some of the flight time required by regulations. 

Instrument flight training is offered in a variety of aircraft, and each type has a different cost associated with it. The reasons for this are different sizes of aircraft and different equipment levels. 

Concerning frequency, a person will retain more information if lessons are completed regularly rather than once a month. Therefore, it goes to follow that someone who flies regularly will be less likely to repeat lessons (due to a higher retention rate), and in the long run, will spend less money. 

The amount of flight instruction a person needs will depend upon each particular person (including factors such as: the amount one has studied as well as the frequency with which one flies). The amount of ground instruction a person will need also varies, based on the type of kit selected (CPC or Jeppesen) and the amount of studying one does on their own. You must also remember that every flight will include varying portions of ground instruction time as you will do a briefing before and after each flight with your instructor. 

As far as flight time is concerned, regulations require you to have:

  1. 50 hours logged as Pilot in Command Cross-Country time, however 10 of these must be in an airplane towards an instrument rating. 
  2. 40 hours of actual or simulated instrument time, which include: 
  3. 15 hours of instrument flight training time with an authorized instructor in an aircraft category for which that rating is sought 
  4. 3 hours of instrument training from an authorized instructor in preparation for the practical test (within the preceding 60 days of date of test) 
  5. Instrument flight training on cross-country flight procedures specific to airplanes, including at least one IFR cross-country that is at least 250 nautical miles (along airways or ATC directed routing) with an instrument approach at each airport
  6. at least 3 different kinds of approaches with the use of navigation systems. 

Now, this is the tough part to estimate, as everyone reaches the point of getting an instrument rating with different levels of flight experience and times. Each person will want to sit down with an instructor to evaluate what times they already have, and what type of instruction they will need to obtain in order to figure out what their particular cost may be. Here, we’ll give you a very generalized estimate as to the price you will be looking at.

If you have just received your Private Pilot’s license and are starting right into your instrument rating, you will already have a minimum of 5 hours logged PIC cross-country time, and an average of 55 hours total time. You will need 45 hours additional PIC cross-country time which can be VFR or IFR (with a safety pilot or instructor), however 10 of those hours need to be IFR, towards your instrument rating. You also will need a total of 40 hours with an instructor.

Now, what is recommended is that you do all 45 of those cross-country hours with an instructor, applying it all to your instrument rating. This will cover all of your squares as far as time requirements, and would be the least possible amount of hours you could spend to obtain your rating. However, the average time a pilot will need is closer to 60 or 70 hours of dual given, based on variables including: time available to study/fly, frequency of flights, the amount studied before flights, and experience level (which leads to comfort level in the airplane).

For someone who has had their Private Pilot’s License a little longer and may have had an opportunity to log at least 45 hours of PIC cross-country, the amount of time you take to complete your rating may be slightly less than the average 60 or 70 hours. The reason for this again is simply experience level and comfort in the airplane.

The amount of ground instruction a person will need also varies, based on the type of kit selected (CPC or Jeppesen) and the amount of studying one does on their own. You must also remember that every flight will include varying portions of ground instruction time as you will do a briefing before and after each flight with your instructor. 

Below is a rough estimate of costs you will incur in several types of airplanes, using the average number of hours a pilot normally acquires (55 dual given, plus 10 dual given in the simulator), and a minimum of ground time (40 hours). The very minimum estimate is given in parentheses, which gives you only 45 hours dual given in an airplane, plus the ground time and fees. There is also a fee for your written exam and your check ride at the end of your course, which will average about $320. Remember that these numbers will vary lower or higher depending on the person.


Cessna 152 VFR $ 5,200 (very minimum $ 4,640)
Cessna 172 VFR $7,545 (very minimum $6,115) 
Cessna 172 IFR $8,260 (very minimum $6,700) 

* PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE

Commercial Pilot

Congratulations on making your decision to become a Commercial Pilot! With this certificate you gain the challenge of furthering your abilities to stricter standards, lower insurance premiums, and will be allowed to fly for hire (i.e. flight instructing, banner towing, corporate flying, charter arrangements , airline flying, etc). You will need a current second class medical to act in this capacity.

You may complete this certificate in either a single-engine airplane or a multi-engine airplane, however it is the least expensive to complete in a single-engine. Therefore, this is written from the perspective of gaining your certificate in a single-engine plane. If your career goals are aiming towards the airlines, you may want to consider obtaining the most time possible in a twin, and therefore obtaining a multi-engine Commercial certificate. Once again you will want to sit down with your instructor and discuss your goals in order to come up with a reasonable course for you. 

At this point, you are semi-familiar with the FAA’s system of obtaining certificates. Earning your commercial certificate is similar to your previous license (or rating) in that you must take both a knowledge (written) and a practical test. Once again you will have certain maneuvers that you are expected to perform, and you will be given specific parameters to perform within. The examiner is looking to ensure that you will make a safe and competent pilot, that you have good judgment, and can be flexible with your environment.

To that end, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has designed a minimum amount of hours (which equates to flight experience) that they require for you to obtain your rating. It is up to the instructor to ensure that each pilot applicant is prepared before sending them up for an exam (check ride).

What Can I Expect in my Instrument Training?

Flying
Throughout your training for your Commercial Certificate you will be improving your flying skills and developing a mastery of the airplane. There will be several new maneuvers to learn, as well as the challenge of a complex airplane (a plane with retractable landing gear, flaps, and controllable pitch propeller).
For a Commercial Single-Engine Land Certificate regulations require you to have:

250 hours total flight time (190 hrs 141)
100 hours in powered aircraft, 50 of those must be in airplanes 
100 hours of Pilot in Command (PIC) time of which: 50 hours must be in airplanes, 50 hours of cross-country flight time (10 hours must be in airplanes) 
20 hours flight training of which must include: 
10 hours of instrument training (5 of those must be in a single-engine airplane) 
10 hours must be in a complex or turbine powered airplane 
one day VFR cross-country of at least 2 hours in a single engine airplane (must be more than 10 nautical miles from original point of departure) 
one night VFR cross-country of at least 2 hours in a single-engine airplane (must be more than 10 nautical miles from original point of departure) 
3 hours in a single-engine airplane in preparation for the practical test within the 60 day period before the date of the test 
10 hours of solo flight in a single-engine airplane which must include: 
one cross-country flight of no less than 300 nautical miles total distance, with landings at a minimum of 3 points-one of which is straight-line distance of at least 250 nautical miles from the original departure point 
5 hours of night VFR including 10 take-offs and landings at an airport with an operating control tower. 

Your Written Exam and Check Ride 
The written exam should be completed several weeks before finishing your flying, and is fairly straightforward. It is a multiple choice computerized exam, consisting of 100 questions for which you are allotted three hours to complete. What makes this test straightforward is that the questions are selected from an FAA bank of approximately 600 questions, which are all published. As long as you review the questions and take some practice tests, you will be prepared for your written exam.

Your practical test will consist of two sections, both an oral part (where you will sit down and answer questions for the examiner), as well as a practical portion. Here, you will go up in the airplane with the examiner and perform the specified maneuvers. Once that is completed to the set specifications, the examiner will issue you your Commercial Pilot Certificate!

Beyond the Check Ride
Now that you are Commercially Certificated, you have the opportunity to fly for a living! You may go on to obtain your Certified Flight Instructor Certificates, Multi-Engine Rating, and/or Airline Transport Pilot Certificate!

How long will it take?
You are able to complete a your Commercial Certificate rating at your convenience. Therefore, you may be done in as short a period as two months or as long a period of time as you desire. It is up to you and your schedule as to what amount of time you are willing to devote to flying and studying. 

As an example, a person that completes his/her certificate in two months may be flying every day, whereas someone who completes their certificate in a longer amount of time may be flying three days a week or less. What you will want to do is sit down with your instructor and discuss your goals, as well as the amount of time you intend to put into the certificate. From there, the two of you can set a reasonable course of action.

Can there be any restrictions on my certificate?
Yes, if you do not have your instrument rating before obtaining this certificate, you will not be allowed to fly passengers for hire a distance longer than 50 nautical miles or at night time. This is one of the reasons most pilots obtain their instrument rating first, as well as the fact that all of your instrument time counts towards your Commercial Certificate total time.

How much will my Commercial Certificate Cost?
This cost will vary drastically depending on which airplanes you choose to fly, how much time you already have, and how much ground and flight instruction you require. You will want to sit down and look over all the requirements for the certificate, and compare them with what you have already achieved. Then you will be able to determine what you need, and make some choices as to which airplanes you want to fly to accumulate your time.

If you have already decided to complete your flight instructor certificate after your Commercial, you may be able to save some money by taking an instructor along more often than is required, and begin teaching as well as flying from the right seat.

Here we will create a rough example of cost range. Assuming you have taken the average amount of time to complete your Private Pilot’s license and Instrument Rating, you will have 110 hours of flight time. Therefore you will need 140 more hours, with at least 20 hours of instruction time. Most of that instruction time should be in a complex airplane. Now, assuming that you fly: 

120 hours in the least expensive type of airplane (Cessna 152) 
20 hours with an instructor in a complex airplane (Cessna 172 RG) 
ground instruction time equals 25 hours (average amount of time required) 
written and practical test fees at the end average $320 


Based on these factors a rough cost of $9,500 is totaled up. If you fly 120 hours in a Cessna 172 instead of 152, you will range from a total cost of $12,500 to $14,900. However, everyone will have different costs based on their choices of airplanes and amounts of instruction time. 
How will I be able to pay for my Commercial Certificate?

For your convenience, there are two ways to make your payments. Either you may pay as you learn or pay lump sums ahead of time to create an account.

What kind of Equipment will I need to purchase?
The Cessna Pilot Center offers an excellent set of interactive CD-ROMs which you may complete at your own convenience. This also includes a manual along with it. If you decide to purchase this, you will also need to purchase a book published by Gleim, called the FAA Commercial Written Exam, as well as a current FAR/AIM if you don’t already have one. This cost will average approximately $300.

If you do not have ready access to a computer, you should you should look into purchasing the Jeppesen Instrument/Commercial Manual, as well as Gleim’s FAA Commercial Written Exam and a current FAR/AIM. This option will average approximately $130.

Certified Flight Instructor

To become a Certified Flight Instructor (CFI), you must be 18 years old and hold a commercial or airline transport certificate with an instrument rating. You must pass a written examination and an FAA check ride.

As a Flight Instructor you may instruct students in becoming a Private Pilot or Commercial Pilot. If you would also like to teach instrument flying, you must gain that rating on your flight instructor certificate.

What instructor certificates are available for me to obtain and what do they allow me to do?
Once you have your Commercial certificate, you will be able to move on to obtain you instructor certificates, which include: 

Certified Flight Instructor (CFI) – This allows you to instruct Private and Commercial applicants, as well as to perform flight reviews, all in a single-engine airplane. 
Certified Flight Instructor Instrument (CFII) – This allows you to instruct Instrument Rating applicants in a single-engine or multi-engine airplane (whichever you are rated to instruct in). 

Must I complete my CFI certificate first?
No, there is no rule as to which certificate you must do first, although the general progression is to complete your CFI, CFII.

What can I expect in my training to obtain my CFI Certificate?
While doing your initial flight instructor certificate, you will start out learning to fly and teach from the right seat. You will be doing all the same maneuvers you did as a commercial pilot, only teaching your way through them as well. You will need to create a whole set of lesson plans as well as to do some practice ground training sessions with your instructor.

This time you will have two written knowledge tests as well as a practical exam, including a both oral and practical section. The first written exam covers the fundamentals of instruction itself, i.e. the principles of teaching. There is a test bank of almost 200 questions (all published), of which you are asked 50 random questions. You are allotted  2 hours and one half to complete these. The second exam (if you are doing your CFI,  is the Flight/Ground Instructor, which is 100 questions with two and one half hours to complete it. These questions come from a test bank of approximately 855 questions (all published). If you complete your CFII as your first instructor certificate, then you would take the instrument written exam, which is 60 questions out of a bank of 900.

How long will it take for me to complete my instructor certificates?
Under 14 CFR Part 61 there are no flight time minimums that you must have to obtain your instructor certificates. Therefore, it is up to you—your motivation, study habits, and regularity of flight to get through quickly or not. You will want to sit down with your instructor and discuss your goals to set a reasonable schedule for you to finish your certificate.

What kind of equipment will I need to purchase?
Mostly reference books are going to be what you need now, and you will have to make your choice based on which certificates you are applying for. Below is a comprehensive list of great books to use:

Fundamentals of Instructing (FOI) FAA Written Exam, published by Gleim $13 
Flight/Ground Instructor (FIA) FAA Written Exam, published by Gleim $15 
Instrument Pilot FAA Written Exam, published by Gleim $19 
Aviation Instructor’s Handbook, published by the FAA (FAA-H-8083-9) $17 
Flight Instructor for Airplane/Multi-engine Land and Sea PTS, published by ASA (FAA-S-8081-6AM) $5 
Flight Instructor Instrument for Airplane and Helicopter, published by ASA (FAA-S-8081-9A) $5 
Certified Flight Instructor Oral Exam Guide by Michael D. Hayes (ASA-OEG-CF13) $10 
Highly Recommended: 
The Flight Instructor’s Manual, by William Kershner $33 
Flight Instructor’s Lesson Plan Handbook, by Edwin Quinlan $60 

How much will completing my CFI cost?
Since the cost will vary directly with the time you spend flying and with an instructor, we can give you no exact figure on cost for each certificate. An average that a person spends as far as ground and flight instruction for their CFI could be around 40 hours, with close to 20 hours of flight (in a complex airplane—the Piper Arrow). This is going to vary quite a bit for each person though based on prior experience, motivation, and study habits. With this estimate, your CFI will cost around $3,400 (including testing fees). Assuming you complete your CFII after you have done your CFI, an estimate for your CFII will be 10 hours of flight time (in a Cessna 172) and 5 hours of ground time, which totals approximately $1,485 (including test and examiner fees). Assuming you complete your MEI after your CFI, an estimate will be 15 hours dual (assuming you have no PIC time in that particular plane, if you do then you may need less than 15 hours) and 5 hours of ground. This totals out to approximately $3,100 (including examiner fees).

How will I be able to pay for my Instructor certificates?
For your convenience, there are two ways to make your payments. Either you may pay as you learn or pay lump sums ahead of time to create an account.

Complex and High Performance Endorsements

There are many different makes and models of airplanes flying in today's skies. Transitioning to one of these aircraft is an easy way to advance your knowledge of aviation without undergoing all the training required for a new license or rating. 

Although it was great for initial training, the simplicity of a trainer aircraft may now lack the element of challenge. Once you have mastered the operation of a Cessna 172, you may be ready for the higher-cruising speeds and improved performance of, for example, a Cessna 182. A checkout in a high-performance or complex airplane will allow you to operate one of these aircraft as pilot-in-command. To receive this checkout, you simply need instruction and a logbook endorsement that states you are certified to fly complex and/or high-performance aircraft. The definitions of each type of endorsement are listed below, along with the airplanes from our flight line that fit each description. 

Complex Endorsement
This is an endorsement given by an authorized instructor which goes in the back of your logbook and allows you to fly an airplane with retractable gear, flaps, and controllable pitch propeller . The regulations require no check ride for this privilege; however they do require that you be found to be proficient in the operation and systems of the airplane, as well as to have logged flight and ground training from an authorized instructor.

High Performance Endorsement
This is an endorsement given by an authorized instructor which goes in the back of your logbook and allows you to fly an airplane with as engine of more than 200 horsepower. The regulations require no check ride for this privilege, however they do require that you be found to be proficient in the operation and systems of the airplane, as well as to have logged flight and ground training from an authorized instructor.

Flight Review Information (BFR)

When is a Flight Review is Required? (BFR)
Every pilot must complete a Flight Review within the preceding 24 calendar months to act as Pilot in Command (PIC) whether flying solo or carrying passengers, except when one of the following items has been completed:

Satisfactory completion of any phase of the FAA “Wings” Program:
One phase generally requires 3 flight hours with an instructor covering specified areas, as well as the attendance of a Safety Briefing/Program. See attached Application for more information. 
Check ride for any certificate or rating 
14 CFR Part 61.58 pilot proficiency check 
14 CFR Part 121 pilot proficiency check 
14 CFR Part 135 pilot proficiency check 
14 CFR Part 141 chief pilot proficiency check 
Military pilot proficiency check 
Any proficiency check administered by the FAA 
Pilot examiner annual flight check 
Procedures specifically authorized by the FAA 

Any of the previously listed checks can exempt a pilot from completing a flight review. 
A pilot certificate is still valid if none of these has been accomplished, however the pilot cannot act as PIC until the review (or alternative) is completed. No written exam is required. One flight review will allow the pilot to act as PIC in any category or class that he/she is rated in. If the pilot is also Instrument rated, a Flight Review may not substitute the Instrument Competency Check, however the two checks can be combined.

Is a Current Medical Certificate required to complete a Review?
No, a current medical certificate is not required to complete a flight review; however one will be needed before acting as PIC.

Written Flight Review Reference Material

Current FAR/AIM 
Guide to the Biennial Flight Review by Jackie Spanitz, published by ASA 
Biennial Flight Review, published by Flight Bag Series, FTP-BFR-1

What Does a Flight Review Entail?

As per 14 CFR 61.56, a flight review consists of a minimum of one hour of flight training, and one hour ground training. The one hour of ground training will consist of: 

a review of the current general operating and flight rules of Part 91 
a review of those maneuvers and procedures that, at the discretion of the person giving the review, are necessary for the pilot to demonstrate the safe exercise of the privileges of the pilot certificate. 

The flight review is not an exam to be passed or failed, however it is something to refresh the pilot’s skills and knowledge with a current instructor. If, in the judgment of the instructor, the pilot needs more instruction to be safe, the flight and ground training will be logged as dual time. The flight review endorsement will be given only when the instructor is comfortable that the pilot’s knowledge and skill level is enough to make them safe and competent in the air. 
Pertinent regulations in Part 91 which should be covered:

91.7 Civil Aircraft Airworthiness 
91.9 Civil Aircraft Manual, Marking, and Placard Requirements 
91.13 Careless or Reckless Operation 
91.15 Dropping Objects 
91.17 Alcohol or Drugs 
91.25 Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against use of Reports for Enforcement Purposes 
91.103 Preflight Action 
91.107 Use of Safety Belts, Shoulder Harnesses, and Child Restraint Systems 
91.111 Operating Near Other Aircraft 
91.113 Right-of-Way Rules: Except Water Operations 
91.117 Aircraft Speed 
91.119 Minimum Safe Altitudes: General 
91.121 Altimeter Settings 
91.123 Compliance with ATC Clearances and Instructions 
91.125 ATC Light Signals 
91.126 Operating on or in the Vicinity of an Airport in Class G Airspace 
91.127 Operating on or in the Vicinity of an Airport in Class E Airspace 
91.129 Operations in Class D Airspace 
91.130 Operations in Class C Airspace 
91.131 Operations in Class B Airspace 
91.133 Restricted and Prohibited Areas 
91.135 Operations in Class A Airspace 
91.137 Temporary Flight Restrictions (NOTAMS) 
91.151 Fuel Requirements for Flight in VFR Conditions 
91.153 VFR Flight plan: Information Required 
91.155 Basic VFR Weather Minimums 
91.157 Special VFR Weather Minimums 
91.159 VFR Cruising Altitude of Flight Level 
91.203 Civil Aircraft: Certifications Required 
91.205 Powered Civil Aircraft with Standard Category U.S. Airworthiness Certificates: Instrument and Equipment Requirements 
91.207 Emergency Locator Transmitters 
91.211 Supplemental Oxygen 
91.213 Inoperative Instruments and Equipment 
91.215 ATC Transponder and Altitude Reporting Equipment and Use 
91.303 Aerobatic Flight 
91.307 Use of Parachutes 
91.409 Inspections 
91.413 ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections 

Other Areas of Discussion:
Sectionals: All types of Airspace, MTRs 
Weight and Balance computation 
Aircraft Loading 
Density Altitude and it’s effects 
Spin Composition and Recovery 
Weather: Theory, Reports, Weather Briefings, Airmets, Sigmets 
Air Traffic Control Communication: Towered and Non-Towered Airports 


Maneuvers and Procedures:
Although the regulations leave the actual maneuvers and procedures to be covered in the Flight Review up to the instructor, the following are recommended to be completed:
Maneuvers: 
Steep Turns 
Slow Flight/Minimum Controllable Airspeed 
Power-On Stalls 
Power-Off Stalls 
Accelerated Stalls 
Unusual Attitudes 
Basic Instrument flying: Straight and Level, Turns, Climbs, Descents under the hood 

Take-offs and Landings: 
Short Field Take-off 
Short Field Landing 
Soft Field Take-off 
Soft Field Landing 
Crosswind Take-off 
Crosswind Landing 
Go-Arounds 
Touch and Go’s 

Emergency Procedures: 
Engine failures – on take-off, in flight, forced landing procedures 
Lost Communications 


Endorsement Given:
Completion of a Flight Review: 14 CFR Part 61.56 (a) and (c)
I certify that (First name, MI, Last Name), (pilot certificate and number), has satisfactorily completed a flight review of 14 CFR Part 61.56 (a) on (date).
CFI Printed Name and Signature, Certificate number and Expiration Date 

Instrument Proficiency Check Information

When is an IFR Proficiency Check (IPC) is Required?
According to 14 CFR 61.57 ( c ), an instrument rated pilot must perform and log (under actual or simulated instrument conditions) either in flight (in the appropriate category of aircraft for the instrument privileges sought) or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of the aircraft category for the instrument privileges sought, at least six instrument approaches, holding procedures, and intercepting and tracking courses through the use of navigation systems. If this has not been done within the previous 6 calendar months, an instrument pilot is unable to act as PIC under IFR or in weather conditions less than VFR minimums. However, 14 CFR 61.57 (d) gives the instrument rated pilot six more months to fly these maneuvers to gain currency (with a safety pilot or in an approved flight simulator) before requiring an Instrument Proficiency Check.

Written IPC Reference Material
Current FAR/AIM 
Instrument Flight Review, published by Flight Bag Series, FTP-IFR-1 


What an IPC Entails
14 CFR Part 61.57 (d) states that an IPC must be completed in an aircraft that is appropriate to the aircraft category, or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of the aircraft category. The IPC must be done either by an examiner, an authorized instructor, or a person approved by the Administrator to conduct instrument practical tests.

Maneuvers and Procedures
Although the regulations leave the actual maneuvers and procedures to be covered in the IPC up to the instructor, the following are recommended to be completed:
Maneuvers: 

Preflight/Taxi Checks 
Check all Instruments/Set up airplane 
ATC Clearances and Procedures 
Departure Procedures (DP’s) 
Approaches 
VOR 
ILS 
NDB 
Localizer 
Procedure Turns 
DME Arc 
STAR’s 
Missed Approach procedures 

Basic Attitude Instrument Flying 
Straight and Level 
Trimming 
Airspeed Changes in Level Flight 
Standard Rate Level Altitude Turns 
Constant Airspeed Climbs and Descents 
Constant Rate Climbs and Descents 
Turning Climbs and Descents 
Steep Turns 
Stall Recoveries 
Unusual Attitude Recoveries 
Partial Panel Operations 
Flying by the Magnetic Compass/Timed Turns 
VOR/NDB Orientation: Interception/Navigation/Tracking 
Holding 
VOR 
NDB 
Intersection 
Use recommended entries and wind corrections 

Emergency Procedures 
Lost Communications 
Alternator Failure 

Pertinent Regulations Which Should be Covered: 
Part 61

61.3 Requirement for Certificates, Ratings, and Authorizations 
61.45 Practical Tests: Required Aircraft and Equipment 
61.51 Pilot Logbooks 
61.57 Recent Flight Experience: Pilot in Command 
61.65 Instrument Rating Requirements 

Part 91
91.7 Civil Aircraft Airworthiness 
91.9 Civil Aircraft Flight Manual, Marking, and Placard Requirements 
91.13 Careless or Reckless Operation 
91.21 Portable Electronic Devices 
91.103 Preflight Action 
91.109 Flight Instruction: Simulated Instrument Flight and Certain Flight Tests 
91.117 Aircraft Speed 
91.125 ATC Light Signals 
91.131 Operation in Class B Airspace 
91.155 Basic VFR Weather Minimums 
91.157 Special VFR Weather Minimums 
91.167 Fuel Requirements for Flight in IFR Conditions 
91.169 IFR Flight Plan: Information Required 
91.171 VOR Equipment Check for IFR Operations 
91.173 ATC Clearance and Flight Plan Required 
91.175 Takeoff and Landing under IFR 
91.177 Minimum Altitudes for IFR Operations 
91.179 IFR Cruising Altitude or Flight Level 
91.183 IFR Radio Communications 
91.181 Course to be Flown 
91.185 IFR Operations: Two-way radio Communications Failure 
91.187 Operation under IFR in Controlled Airspace: Malfunction Reports 
91.203 Civil Aircraft: Certifications Required 
91.205 Powered Civil Aircraft with Standard Category U.S. Airworthiness Certificates: Instrument and Equipment Requirements 
91.207 Emergency Locator Transmitters 
91.211 Supplemental Oxygen 
91.213 Inoperative Instruments and Equipment 
91.215 ATC Transponder and Altitude Reporting Equipment and Use 
91.409 Inspections 
91.411 Altimeter System and Altitude Reporting Equipment Tests and Inspections 
91.413 ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections 
91.527 Operating in Icing Conditions 

Pertinent Sections of the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) Which Should be Covered:
Chapter 2 section 1 – Airport Lighting and Other Visual Aids 

Chapter 5 section 2 – Departure Procedures 
Clearances 
Restrictions/Void Times/etc 

Chapter 5 section 3 – Enroute Procedures 
Communications 
Position Reporting 
Airways 
Holding 

Chapter 5 section 4 – Arrival Procedures 
Approach Procedures 
Clearances 
Procedure Turns 
Radar 
ILS Approaches 
Minimums 
Missed/Contact/Visual Approaches 

Chapter 5 section 5 – Pilot/Controller Responsibilities 
Clearances 
Safety – Speed adjustments/Traffic Advisories/Separations 
VFR – on – Top 

Chapter 6 section 4 – Two-way Radio Communications Failure 
Chapter 7 section 1 – Meteorology

Other Areas of Discussion:
Segments of an instrument approach 
IFR Charts/Approach Plates/Departure Procedures 
Weather: Theory, Reports, Weather Briefings, Airmets, Sigmets 
Communications 
Instrument Mechanics: Pitot-Static System/Gyroscopes 
Magnetic Compass and Errors 

Endorsement Given
Completion of an Instrument Proficiency Check: 14 CFR 61.57 (d)
I certify that (First name, MI, Last name), (pilot certificate and #) has satisfactorily completed the instrument proficiency check of 14 CFR Part 61.57 (d) in a (list make and model of aircraft) on (date).
CFI Printed Name and Signature, Certificate number and Expiration Date

Ground School

As a Part 61 school, and a Cessna Pilot Center we use the computer based training CD-ROM kit that you may take home and complete. It contains 28 CD-ROM'S and many other essential items' you will use during your training. You will have ground training times with your instructor; however the majority of the knowledge portion is your responsibility to learn.

Flight Instruction Rates

Aircraft and Instruction Rates
Aircraft Rental Rate (solo) Rental Rate (including instructor) 
Single-Engine: Primary Instruction:

Cessna 172 $ 88/hr 
Cessna 162 $ 98/hr  
Cessna 172 RG $ 128/hr

FLIGHT INSTRUCTION $ 45.00/hr

All Rental Rates Include Fuel and Oil 

Miscellaneous:
Instructor Fee $45 for all ground and flight instruction 
Discovery Flight $65 for an hour introductory flight in a Cessna 172 
Headset Rental $2.50/hr. 
Fuel Reimbursement will be at our posted fuel price with a purchase receipt.
Extended Rental Policy When reserving an aircraft for a period of 24 hours or more, the renter must fly an average of at least 3 hours per 24 hour period of rental or 15 hours per week of rental. If these minimums are not met, the renter will be charged as such. 

Payment Methods:

  1. Pay as you go with cash, check, Visa, Mastercard, or American Express
  2. Deposit money into your personal account and withdraw from it over time.
  3. For overnight rental of aircraft, we require that you have money on account or a credit card on file. 

**All prices are subject to change without prior notice**